National targets

Title Rationale Aichi targets
TARGET 1: By 2020 at least 80% of the population are aware of the importance of biodiversity with an increased knowledge on the link and impact of human activities on the major ecosystems

There is a prevailing level of information and knowledge on biodiversity and its value for human wellbeing, is very low. Given this weak level of knowledge on the value, the causes and consequences of biodiversity loss, the behaviour of a wide range of actors is unfavourable to the protection of biodiversity. Furthermore, Private sector actors driven by short-term profit motives do not yet understand the linkage between investment in maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability of the ecosystem services and the natural resource base on which their profit is dependent.

There is a critical need to improve knowledge in educational establishments, media, literature, decentralised authorities, national and sector level decision makers, NGOs and indigenous and local communities. Targeted awareness programs on the long term benefits of corporate responsibility towards biodiversity conservation and sustainable use is necessary to secure private sector involvement.

1. Awareness increased
TARGET 20: By 2018, partnership support and funding of biodiversity programmes should have increased
TARGET 2: By 2020 significant increase in the contribution of scientifically-based information into biodiversity decisio
TARGET 3: By 2020, all forms of pollution from water and land-based activities are brought to levels that are non-detrimental to ecosystem functions.

Preventing and mitigating the impacts of pollution and the serious threats these present for air, land and aquatic biodiversity, is a great concern of our anthropocene area. In view of the current development prospects with an increase in land and marine based activities by large scale agro-industries, forest, mining, port, infrastructure, fishing, livestock, tourism and other sector activities, there is a need for urgent action to prevent and mitigate the impact of the polluting substances, solid and liquid waste that will increasingly be generated across all ecosystems and within specific sectors A major preventive approach is to ensure the conduct of EIAs for all development projects and ensuring effective consideration of biodiversity indicators in EIAs. Also, periodic Strategic Environmenntal (Impact) Assessment (SEA) of policies and programmes would be useful for biodiversity conservation initiatives. Monitoring the implementation of environment management plans of corporate entities is necessary to ensure compliance. Controls and inspections need to be strengthened. Developing general waste management programmes and promoting the development of specific waste management programmes that prevent the contamination of both surface and underground freshwater resources is a priority in reducing the current levels of pollution. The quality (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and major ions) of freshwater bodies need to be monitored periodically.

8. Pollution reduced
TARGET 4: By 2020 an ecologically sustainable system of production and consumption is established based on sustainable practices with appropriate investments.

Our industrial production models and consumption habits represent the root causes of the global environmental changes that are resulting to the historical high level of GHG emissions and the increase the ecological an socio-economic vulnerability that is a threat for human welbeing. As a priority response to the current unsustainable mode of consumption and production exacerbated by a growing population, there is need to promote a sustainable use of the ecosystem and species of importance in a manner that will reduce the pressure on biodiversity and maintain the increase of activities within safe ecological limits. Focus will be given to promoting the sustainable use of plant and animal resources in the production system of key development sectors to increase yield and production; promoting the alternative consumption of new species and the diversity of crops and varieties to reduce pressures on species under threat; supporting small and medium size enterprises with less pressure on biodiversity; promoting the sustainable use of alternative energy and promoting the sustainable management of production landscapes in relation to water consumption, agrochemical use, habitat conversion and monoculture.

4. Sustainable production and consumption, 7. Sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry
TARGET 5: By 2020 Biodiversity-related laws and regulations are strengthened and made coherent in order to avoid confli
TARGET 6: By 2020 the rate of degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems and the loss in habitats is significantly reduced at least by half.

Critical habitats that are under serious threats of degradation due to degradation and fragmentation are not receiving the attention that is given to protection such as forests, mangroves, wetlands etc. In response to address these issues, there is a need to reduce the rate of degradation and habitat fragmentation calls  for the development of management plans for all hotspots or critical habitats that are protected, based on credible date coming from  biodiversity inventories and  assessments to set baselines follow by the establishment of monitoring framework that would help to determine timely the state of biodiversity and highlight trends. Threats of degradation in non-protected areas equally need to be addressed. These include areas rich in biodiversity such as sacred forests, cattle ranches, etc.

5. Habitat loss halved or reduced
TARGET 7 By 2020 endemic and threatened species of flora and fauna should be sustainably managed

Species diversity underpins the ability of any ecosystem to be resilient to changes and pressures. However, the over-exploitation and  unsustainable of natural resources practices for diverse reasons are among the problems affect endemic and common species useful for biodiversity conservation and the human wealth. There is a need  in preventing the issues through the development and implementation of sustainable management approaches calls for species-specific management plans for flora and wildlife. Management strategies for threatened species will be developed. A focus on biological invaders and living modified organisms that are alien or introduced including by ballast waters, calls for a comprehensive programme to be developed for their control and management. Decentralized strategies will also be developed to ensure that ecosystem specificities are taken into consideration during the development of council development plans.

4. Sustainable production and consumption, 6. Sustainable management of marine living resources, 9. Invasive alien species prevented and controlled, 12. Extinction prevented
TARGET 8: By 2020 re-establish and/or recover local extinct species in-situ and ex-situ and maintain a level of conservation that ensures long term sustainability

Efforts towards conservation biodiversity are still dominated through the implementation of protected approaches  that use protected areas as 'isolated islands'. However, this focus over protected areas without solve the roots causes of forest degradation, habitat fragmentation and biodiversity loss may increase human pressures on this selected land use. In response to that, there is a need to re-establish and/or recover local extinct species in-situ and ex-situ and maintain a level of conservation that ensures long term sustainability by also responding to the needs of human wealth. Developing and implementing a species conservation and recovery programme will provide the framework for targeted response. Again the creation or expansion of green corridors will ensure connectivity of ecosystems which are relevant for species recovery and conservation.

11. Protected areas increased and improved
TARGET 9: By 2020 degraded ecosystems/habitats should be rehabilitated to re-establish and/or recover lost species and maintained at a level of conservation that ensures long-term sustainability.

Over the years, ecosystems and the habitats they habour - including Protected Areas (PAs) have witnessed significant degradation, fragmentation and biodiversity loss, and as a results thre has been an increase competition on the remaining limited naural resources. There is a need to reverse the current state of degraded habitat is the development and implementation of habitat rehabilitation programmes. This will be carried out in synergy with Target 8. An inventory of degraded ecosystems and fragile habitats will enable the identification of priority areas for intervention and the development of ecosystem-specific rehabilitation programmes. This approach will facilitate the involvement of decentralised authorities and local communities in the management of these programmes

5. Habitat loss halved or reduced, 14. Ecosystems and essential services safeguarded, 15. Ecosystems restored and resilience enhanced